 STA2023 Elementary Statistics

If you change the way you look at things, the things you look at change.
Max Plank

Any fool can know. The point is to understand.
Albert Einstein

STA2023 Statistics

Lectures are limited to main concepts and solving examples. Most of the time, we will be solving problems in class. In every class.

In this course the Statistical Software R and RStudio will be used to conduct statistical analysis.

Installing R and R Studio: You can download R from CRAN, The Comprehensive R Archive Network, at https://cran.r-project.org
R Studio is also available online at https://rstudio.cloud/ in this case there is no need of installing R and R Studio in a local computer. Simply login using an existing Gmail account or sign up for a new account.

STA2023: Activities

Spring 2020, Broward College

01/07: Orientation, Introduction to the course. Preview and Statistical Thinking.Stat 101 (additional) Notes.
Chapter 2: Frequency Distributions, Histograms, Stem and Leaf Plots. Chapter2 Notes. Download Normtemp excel file (Data taken from the Journal of Statistics Education online data archive. Norm temp in F for 130 individuals, dataset includes gender and heart rate.)

01/14: Chapter 3: Measures of center, measures of variation, measures of relative standing and boxplots. Chapter3 Notes. Charts that matters;
Practice 3. Practice 3 Ans. Practice3 answers in RStudio. Chapters 1, 2, 3 concepts summary pdf.
Lab 2 RStudio.

01/21. Chapter 4: intro to Probabililty. Basic concepts, addition and multiplication rule. Complements and conditional probability, counting rules, permutations, combinations, problems involving combinations. Odds. Chapter4 Notes. Conditional probabilty examples. Practice4. Practice4_worked answers.
Lab 3 RStudio.

01/28: Review for Test 1 consists of: Review01, Review01_answers_in_R; Practice4, Practice4_worked answers (probability questions not included on Review01) and Discussion (Essay questions).

02/04. Test 1 (Chapters 1, 2, 3 & 4). Additional formulas.

02/11: Probability distributions. Binomial Probability distribution. Chapter 5 Notes.
Answer to question 1 of Two Binomial prob experiments

02/18: The standard Normal distribution. Applications. Central Limit theorem. Chapter6 Notes.

Central Limit Theorem:
Regardless of the population distribution model, as the sample size increases, the sample mean tends to be normally distributed around the population mean.

T-Distribution:
The t distribution, also known as Student t-distribution, is a probability distribution that is used to estimate population parameters when the sample size is small and when the population variance is unknown.

02/25: Confidence intervals or intervals estimate: Estimating a Population proportion and a Population mean. Chapter7Notes.

03/10: Review

03/17: Test 2 (Chapters 5, 6 & 7).

Rare Event Rule for Inferential Statistics: if under a given assumption, the probability of a particular observed event is extremely rare, we conclude that the assumption is probably incorrect.

03/24: Hypotesis Testing. Chapter8Notes.
Hypothesis Testing Conclusion Wording by M. Triola.
*Hypothesis Testing examples to work and discuss in class. *Worked answers to examples here.

Step-by-Step procedure for Hypothesis testing (includes formulas)

03/31: Inferences about two means. Independent & dependent samples.
Notes, comparing two groups. Independent samples.
Dependent Samples.

Correlation and regression. Notes.

04/07: Review3 based on practices 8 and 9 for Test 3.
Mock Test 3 on 04/07 ... test yourself !
Step by Step answers to mock test; using both, graphing calculators and formulas.

04/14: Test 3.

04/21. Review for Final Exam.

04/28: Final exam.

Instructions on how to use your calculators (Statistics):
Scientific calculatotors like TI 36 Pro, TI 30 II, Casio fx 115 ES only perform a limited number of operations ( Chapter 3):

R code: > barplot(dbinom(x = 0:10, size = 10, prob = 0.5),names.arg = 0:10,space=0, main="Binomial dist histogram for n=10, p=.5") Probability: The Deck of Cards.

A deck of cards consists of 4 suits, 13 cards each for a total of 52 cards. The four suits are: Spades, Hearts, Diamonds, and Clubs. Each suit contains an A (Ace), numbers from 2 to 10, and three face cards: J, The Jack; Q, the Queen and K, the King.
Colors: Hearts and Diamonds are red, Spades and Clubs are black.  Tues 6:30pm-9:15pm
Bldng 70, room 204

OpenIntro Statistics is an open-source textbook for introductory statistics written by David Diez, Christopher Barr, and Mine Cetinkaya-Rundel. Free to download.
This books DOES NOT replace the textbook for our course, but it may be used as a complementary source. Online Statistics Education: An Interactive Multimedia Course of Study developed by Rice University (Lead Developer), University of Houston Clear Lake, and Tufts University. Syllabus STA2023
Session 1: 01/04 to 05/03

Software:

### Probability Distributions in R (Stat 5101, Geyer)

Columbia Univ: Statistics,

Basic Statistical Analysis Using R:
by T. Heeren & J.Milton,
Boston University.

Quick R by statmethods.net

MarinStatlectures.com: R tutorials

Table of Useful R commands,
Calvin College.

Probability Distributions in R,
University of Minnessota.

College of Staten Island: Using R for Introductory Statistics:
John Verzani:

SimpleR is a previous version
of John Verzani's ebook PPTs from dropbox).

Statistics Formulas by Mario F. Triola

Statistics Tables by Mario F. Triola

Complete set of formulas and tables

Statistics:  Mathematics of a Lady Tasting Tea
By SIR RONALD A. FISHER

Understanding Public Opinion Survey
by MichiganSc. 