STA2023 Elementary Statistics

If you change the way you look at things, the things you look at change.
Max Plank

Any fool can know. The point is to understand.
Albert Einstein

STA2023 Statistics

Lectures are limited to main concepts and solving examples. Most of the time, we will be solving problems in class. In every class. 

In this course the Statistical Software R and RStudio will be used to conduct statistical analysis.

Installing R and R Studio:


You can download R from CRAN, The Comprehensive R Archive Network, at
Then, download RStudio from the RStudio website:
R Studio is also available online at in this case there is no need of installing R and R Studio in a local computer. Simply login using an existing Gmail account or sign up for a new account.

STA2023: Activities

Spring 2020, Broward College

01/07: Orientation, Introduction to the course. Preview and Statistical Thinking. Chapter1 Notes. Stat 101 (additional) Notes.
Chapter 2: Frequency Distributions, Histograms, Stem and Leaf Plots. Chapter2 Notes. Download Normtemp excel file (Data taken from the Journal of Statistics Education online data archive. Norm temp in F for 130 individuals, dataset includes gender and heart rate.)
Lab 1 RStudio. Practice 1; Practice1Answers. Practice2; Practice2Answers.

01/14: Chapter 3: Measures of center, measures of variation, measures of relative standing and boxplots. Chapter3 Notes. Charts that matters;
Practice 3. Practice 3 Ans. Practice3 answers in RStudio. Chapters 1, 2, 3 concepts summary pdf.
Lab 2 RStudio.

01/21. Chapter 4: intro to Probabililty. Basic concepts, addition and multiplication rule. Complements and conditional probability, counting rules, permutations, combinations, problems involving combinations. Odds. Chapter4 Notes. Conditional probabilty examples.
Practice4. Practice4_worked answers. Lab 3 RStudio.

01/28: Review for Test 1 consists of: Review01, Review01_answers_in_R;
Practice4, Practice4_worked answers (probability questions not included on Review01) and Discussion (Essay questions).

Example of Hw question in R using Excel.

02/04. Test 1 (Chapters 1, 2, 3 & 4). Additional formulas.

02/11: Probability distributions. Binomial Probability distribution.
Chapter 5 Notes. Lab 4 RStudio. Practice5. Practice5 answers in RStudio.
Additional questions: Two binomial probability experiments.
Answer to Two Binomial experiments using R.

02/18: The standard Normal distribution. Applications. Central Limit theorem.
Chapter6 Notes. Lab 5 RStudio. Practice 06. Practice 06 Ans in R.

Central Limit Theorem:
Regardless of the population distribution model, as the sample size increases, the sample mean tends to be normally distributed around the population mean.

The t distribution, also known as Student t-distribution, is a probability distribution that is used to estimate population parameters when the sample size is small and when the population variance is unknown.

02/25: Confidence intervals or intervals estimate: Estimating a Population proportion and a Population mean. Chapter7Notes. Lab 6 RStudio.
Practice 7. Practice 7 answ in R.

03/10: Review 02. Review answers in R.

03/24: Test 2 (Chapters 5, 6 & 7).

Rare Event Rule for Inferential Statistics: if under a given assumption, the probability of a particular observed event is extremely rare, we conclude that the assumption is probably incorrect.

03/31: Hypotesis Testing. Chapter8Notes. Hypothesis testing in R for STA2023.
Lab 7 RSudio. Lecture_PPT_Presentation as pdf. Practice08. Practice08 Ans in R.
Hypothesis Testing Conclusion Wording by M. Triola.
*Hypothesis Testing examples to work and discuss in class. *Worked answers to examples here with R.
Inferences about two proportions. Inferences about two means.
Notes, comparing two groups. Independent samples, Practice 9. Practice 9 Ans in R.
TwoPropTesting. Answers in R.

04/07: Review3. Review 3 Ans in R.
Mock Test 3 on 04/07 ... test yourself !
Step by Step answers to mock test; using both, graphing calculators and formulas.

04/14: Test 3.

04/21. Review for Final Exam.

04/28: Final exam.

Instructions on how to use your calculators (Statistics):
Scientific calculatotors like TI 36 Pro, TI 30 II, Casio fx 115 ES only perform a limited number of operations ( Chapter 3):

R code: > barplot(dbinom(x = 0:10, size = 10, prob = 0.5),names.arg = 0:10,space=0, main="Binomial dist histogram for n=10, p=.5")

Probability: The Deck of Cards.

A deck of cards consists of 4 suits, 13 cards each for a total of 52 cards. The four suits are: Spades, Hearts, Diamonds, and Clubs. Each suit contains an A (Ace), numbers from 2 to 10, and three face cards: J, The Jack; Q, the Queen and K, the King.
Colors: Hearts and Diamonds are red, Spades and Clubs are black.

Spades, Hearts, Diamonds, Clubs:

Mathematics of a Lady Tasting Tea

Understanding Public Opinion Survey
by MichiganSc.

Tues 6:30pm-9:15pm
Blackboard (online)

Blackboard collaborate for students
Brief tutorial:

OpenIntro Statistics is an open-source textbook for introductory statistics written by David Diez, Christopher Barr, and Mine Cetinkaya-Rundel. Free to download.
This books DOES NOT replace the textbook for our course, but it may be used as a complementary source.


Online Statistics Education: An Interactive Multimedia Course of Study developed by Rice University (Lead Developer), University of Houston Clear Lake, and Tufts University.

Syllabus STA2023
Session 1: 01/04 to 05/03
Blackboard. Online.

Online Pearson HW instructions




Datasets Available in R - GitHub Pages

College of the Redwoods, using R in Statistics.

Probability Distributions in R (Stat 5101, Geyer)

Columbia Univ: Statistics, R Notes.

Basic Statistical Analysis Using R:
by T. Heeren & J.Milton,
Boston University.

Quick R by R tutorials

Table of Useful R commands,
Calvin College.

Probability Distributions in R,
University of Minnessota.

College of Staten Island: Using R for Introductory Statistics:
John Verzani:
link or download it here.

SimpleR is a previous version
of John Verzani's ebook

PPTs from dropbox).

Statistics Formulas by Mario F. Triola

Statistics Tables by Mario F. Triola

Complete set of formulas and tables