STA2023 Statistics

Lectures are limited to main concepts and solving examples. Most of the time, we will be solving problems in class. In every class. 

Installing R and R Studio:


You can download R from CRAN, The Comprehensive R Archive Network, at
Then, download RStudio from the RStudio website:
R Studio is also available online at in this case there is no need of installing R and R Studio in a local computer. Simply login using an existing Gmail account or sign up for a new account.

Tues 6:30pm-9:15pm
Blackboard (online)

Blackboard collaborate for students
Brief tutorial:

OpenIntro Statistics is an open-source textbook for introductory statistics written by David Diez, Christopher Barr, and Mine Cetinkaya-Rundel. Free to download.
This books DOES NOT replace the textbook for our course, but it may be used as a complementary source.


Online Statistics Education: An Interactive Multimedia Course of Study developed by Rice University (Lead Developer), University of Houston Clear Lake, and Tufts University.

Syllabus STA2023
Session 1: 01/04 to 05/03
Blackboard. Online.

R Staitsical Software:


Datasets Available in R - GitHub Pages

College of the Redwoods:
using R in Statistics.

Probability Distributions in R

Columbia Univ: Statistics, R Notes.

Basic Statistical Analysis Using R:
by T. Heeren & J.Milton,
Boston University.

Quick R by R tutorials

Table of Useful R commands,
Calvin College.

Probability Distributions in R,
University of Minnessota.

College of Staten Island: Using R for Introductory Statistics:
John Verzani:
link or download it here.

SimpleR is a previous version
of John Verzani's ebook

PPTs from dropbox).

Statistics Formulas by Mario F. Triola

Statistics Tables by Mario F. Triola

Complete set of formulas and tables

STA2023: Activities

Spring 2020, Broward College

In this course the Statistical Software R and RStudio will be used to conduct statistical analysis.

01/07: Orientation, Introduction to the course (R, RStudio). Preview and Statistical Thinking.
Chapter 2: Frequency Distributions, Histograms, Stem and Leaf Plots. Download Normtemp excel file (Data taken from the Journal of Statistics Education online data archive. Norm temp in F for 130 individuals, dataset includes gender and heart rate.)
Lab 1 RStudio. Practice 1 and Practice2

01/14: Chapter 3: Measures of center, measures of variation, measures of relative standing and boxplots. Charts that matters. Summary Chap 1, 2,3.
Practice 3. Practice3 answers in RStudio. Chapters 1, 2, 3 concepts summary pdf.
Lab 2 RStudio.

01/21. Chapter 4: intro to Probabililty. Basic concepts, addition and multiplication rule. Complements and conditional probability, counting rules, permutations, combinations, problems involving combinations. Odds.
Practice4. Lab 3 RStudio.

01/28: Review for Test 1 consists of: Review01, Review01 answers in R.
Example of Hw question in R using Excel.

02/04. Test 1 (Chapters 1, 2, 3 & 4). Additional formulas.

02/11: Probability distributions. Binomial Probability distribution.
Chapter 5 Notes. Lab 4 RStudio. Practice5. Practice5 answers in RStudio.
Additional questions: Two binomial probability experiments.
Answer to Two Binomial experiments using R.

02/18: The standard Normal distribution. Applications. Central Limit theorem.
Lab 5 RStudio. Practice 06. Practice 06 Ans in R.

Central Limit Theorem:
Regardless of the population distribution model, as the sample size increases, the sample mean tends to be normally distributed around the population mean.

The t distribution, also known as Student t-distribution, is a probability distribution that is used to estimate population parameters when the sample size is small and when the population variance is unknown.

02/25: Confidence intervals or intervals estimate: Estimating a Population proportion and a Population mean. Lab 6 RStudio.
Practice 7. Practice 7 answ in R.

03/10: Review 02. Review answers in R.

03/24: Test 2 (Chapters 5, 6 & 7).

Rare Event Rule for Inferential Statistics: if under a given assumption, the probability of a particular observed event is extremely rare, we conclude that the assumption is probably incorrect.

03/31: Hypotesis Testing. Hypothesis testing in R for STA2023.
Lab 7 RSudio. Practice08. Practice08 Ans in R.
*Hypothesis Testing examples to work and discuss in class.
*Worked answers to examples here with R.
Inferences about two proportions. Inferences about two means.
Notes, comparing two groups. Independent samples, Practice 9. Practice 9 Ans in R.
TwoPropTesting. Answers in R.

04/07: Review3. Review 3 Ans in R.
04/09: Test 3.

04/14: Regression and Correlation, Lab 8 RStudio.
04/21: Tests of Independence, Chi-Sq tests. Lab 9 RStudio.
04/28: Final exam.

Mathematics of a Lady Tasting Tea

R code: > barplot(dbinom(x = 0:10, size = 10, prob = 0.5),names.arg = 0:10,space=0, main="Binomial dist histogram for n=10, p=.5")

Probability: The Deck of Cards.

A deck of cards consists of 4 suits, 13 cards each for a total of 52 cards. The four suits are: Spades, Hearts, Diamonds, and Clubs. Each suit contains an A (Ace), numbers from 2 to 10, and three face cards: J, The Jack; Q, the Queen and K, the King.
Colors: Hearts and Diamonds are red, Spades and Clubs are black.

Spades, Hearts, Diamonds, Clubs: